1. Supurovic, Predrag, MPEG AUDIO FRAME HEADER., (retrieved April 5, 2021)
    • last updated on December 22, 1999
    • detailed breakdown of the MPEG audio frame header
  2. Windszus, Konrad, MPEG Audio Frame Header (retrieved April 5, 2021)
    • good overview
  3. unknown, MP3 inside (retrieved April 7, 2021)
    • replicates a lot data available elsewhere (such as the MPEG audio header frame format), but is the only place I could find where the Xing TOC field is documented
  4. unknown, MP3 decoder tests (retrieved April 8, 2021)
  5. Raissi, Rassol, The Theory Behind Mp3 (retrieved April 8, 2021).
  6. Li, Yaqi, Cao, Yizhen, "Identification of Different Patterns of MP3 and Duration Calculation", International Conference on Computer Science and Service System (CSSS 2014), pp653-656.
  7. O'Conner, Russell "MP3 Sucks", (retrieved April 11, 2021)
  8. Bouvigne, Gabriel, "MPEG Audio Layer I/II/III frame header" (retrieved April 6, 2021).
  9. unknown, "VBR header and LAME tag", (retrieved April 7, 2021).
  10. unknown, "Mp3 Info Tag Revision 1 Specifications", (retrieved April 9, 2021).
  11. multiple, "LAME version string", (retrieved April 9, 2021).
  12. Praveen Sripada, "MP3 DECODER in Theory and Practice", (retrieved April 9, 2021).


  1. "LAME MP3 Encoder" (retrieved April 7, 2021)
  2. BeagleBuddy
    • a clean & well-documented Java library
  3. "libmad - MPEG audio decoder library", (retrieved April 7, 2021).
  4. mp3val, (retrieved April 20, 2021).
    • "MP3val is a small, high-speed tool for MPEG audio files validation and (optionally) fixing problems."
    • will check CRCs in each frame
  5. mp3guessenc, (retrieved April 20, 2021).
    • "a small utility for analysis of audio mpeg files and detection of the encoder used (when layer III)."
    • last release was in 2020, so someone else out there is still working on MP3
  6. mpg123 (retrieved April 20, 2021).
    • "This is the fast and Free (LGPL license) real time MPEG Audio Layer 1, 2 and 3 decoding library and console player."
  7. MP3 Diags (retrieved April 22, 2021).
    • "In a few words, MP3 Diags is a GUI-based application that allows end-users to identify issues with their MP3 files, fix some of the issues and make other changes, like adding track information. It also lets you 'look inside' an MP3 file."
  8. okdana/mp3sum: [INACTIVE] An integrity-checking tool for MP3s (retrieved April 22, 2021).
    • "mp3sum is a utility for verifying the integrity of MP3 files"
  9. Sjord/checkmate: Checkmate MP3 Checker is a free program that checks MP3 files for errors. (retrieved April 22, 2021).
    • "Checkmate MP3 Checker is a free program that checks MP3 files for errors. It scans MP3 files to see if the frames are where they are supposed to be, whether the frame headers are correct and whether the frame headers are consistent throughout the file. It reports some information on each file and an indication whether the file is good or bad."
  10. lieff/minimp3: Minimalistic MP3 decoder single header library
    • "Minimalistic, single-header library for decoding MP3. minimp3 is designed to be small, fast (with SSE and NEON support), and accurate (ISO conformant)."